List of Workshop Materials
These readings introduced some basic elements of the ethics of uncertainty in science, law, and journalism, and laid the groundwork for the study topics discussed during the workshops:
Science & Uncertainty
- Seth Borenstein, Associated Press, What 95% Certainty of Warming Means to Scientists (Sept. 24, 2013), https://weather.com/science/environment/news/what-95-certainty-global-warming-means-scientists-20130924.
- Stuart Firestein, Nature, Tales of the unexpected: Stuart Firestein relishes Helga Nowotny’s study of uncertainty in science and society, (Oct. 29, 2015), https://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v526/n7575/pdf/526638a.pdf.
- Robin Lloyd, Scientific American, Is There Really a War on Science? (Feb. 15, 2016), http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/is-there-really-a-war-on-science/.
Chris Mooney, The Washington Post, Researchers may have finally found an antidote to biased thinking about science (Aug. 3, 2016), https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/energy-environment/wp/2016/08/03/researchers-may-have-finally-found-an-antidote-to-biased-thinking-about-science.
- David B. Resnick, National Institute of Environmental Health Services, What is Ethics in Research & Why is it Important? (May 1, 2011), http://www.niehs.nih.gov/research/resources/bioethics/whatis/.
- Andrew Revkin, The New York Times, How Rachel Carson Spurred Chemical Concerns by Highlighting Uncertainty (Sept. 27, 2012), http://dotearth.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/09/27/how-rachel-carson-spurred-chemical-controls-by-highlighting-uncertainty/?_php=true&_type=blogs&_r=0.
Law & Uncertainty
- Cornelia Dean, The New York Times, When Questions of Science Come to a Courtroom, Truth Has Many Faces (Dec. 5, 2006), http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/05/science/05law.html?pagewanted=all.
- Bob Simison, InsideClimate News, ExxonMobil Faces Heightened Risk of Climate Litigation, Its Critics Say (Sept. 30, 2015), https://insideclimatenews.org/print/41218.
- Michael Traynor, Communicating Scientific Uncertainty: A Lawyer’s Perspective (discussion draft). Final version published in the Environmental Law Reporter, February 2015.
Journalism & Uncertainty
- Society of Professional Journalists Code of Ethics, http://www.spj.org/ethicscode.asp.
- Jason Abbruzzese, Mashable, The Guardian targets oil companies with 'unprecedented' climate-change campaign, (Apr. 1, 2015), http://mashable.com/2015/04/01-guardian-fossil-fuel-divestment/#EnyQdCcZbkqK.
- Sarah Knapton, The Telegraph, BBC Staff Told to Stop Inviting Cranks on to Science Programmes (July 4, 2014), http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/tvandradio/bbc/10944629/BBC-staff-told-to-stop-inviting-cranks-on-to-science-programmes.html.
- Derek J. Koehler, The New York Times, Why People Are Confused About What Experts Really Think (Feb. 12, 2016), http://nyti.ms/1KLeoqe.
- Reed Richardson, The Nation, Blinded Me with Balance: How the US Media Get Science Coverage Wrong (& How They Can Get It Right) (July 21, 2014), http://www.thenation.com/blog/180731/blinded-me-balance-how-us-media-get-science-coverage-wrong-how-they-can-get-it-right#.
- Ravi Somaiya, The New York Times, Columbia Disputes Exxon Mobil on Climate Risk Articles (Dec. 1, 2015), http://nyti.ms/1LMdPWO.
- Margaret Sullivan, The New York Times, He Said, She Said, and the Truth (Sept. 15, 2012), http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/16/public-editor/16pubed.html.
- Bud Ward, Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics, Journalism Ethics and Climate Change Reporting in a Period of Intense Media Uncertainty (Jan. 8, 2009), www.int-res.com/articles/esep2009/9/journalism/e009pp3.pdf.
Climate Change, Extreme Weather Events & Uncertainty
Paul Barrett and Matthew Phillips, Blomberg BusinessWeek, Can ExxonMobil Be Found Liable for Misleading the Public on Climate Change? (Sept. 7, 2016), https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-09-07/will-exxonmobil-have-to-pay-for-misleading-the-public-on-climate-change.
- Steven T. Corneliussen, Physics Today, Science and journalism revisit the attribution of extreme weather to climate change (March 23, 2016), http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/magazine/physicstoday/news/10.1063/PT.5.8170.
- Heidi Cullen, The New York Times, What Weather is the Fault of Climate Change? (March 11, 2016), http://nyti.ms/1SFJ6TL.
- Mark Fischetti, Scientific American, Did Climate Change Cause Hurricane Sandy? (Oct. 30, 2012), http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/observations/2012/10/30/did-climate-change-cause-hurricane-sandy/.
- Andrew Freedman, Climate Central, Tornado Outbreak Raises Climate Change Questions (Apr. 29, 2011), http://www.climatecentral.org/blogs/tornado-outbreak-raises-climate-change-questions.
- Chelsea Harvey, The Washington Post, Science confirms it: Denial of climate change is all about the politics (Feb. 22, 2016), https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/energy-environment/wp/2016/02/22/science-confirms-it-denial-of-climate-change-is-all-about-the-politics/.
- Stephanie Paige Ogburn, ClimateWire, Climate Change Played a Role in Half of 2012’s Extreme Weather (Sept. 6, 2013) [link not available – subscription required].
Jason Samenow, The Washington Post, Is the media scaring the public too much about climate change and extreme weather? (Sept. 19, 2016), https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/capital-weather-gang/wp/2016/09/19/is-the-media-scaring-the-pubic-too-much-about-climate-change-and-extreme-weather.
Richard C.J. Somerville, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Thanksgiving advice: How to deal with climate change denying Uncle Pete (Nov. 21, 2016), http://thebulletin.org/thanksgiving-advice-how-deal-climate-change-denying-uncle-pete10196.
Paul C. Stern et al., Science, The challenge of climate-change neoskepticism: decision science and risk management are underutilized (Aug. 12, 2016), http://science.sciencemag.org/content/353/6300/653 (full text requires subscription).
GMOs & Uncertainty
Jonathan H. Adler, Regulation, There is No Consumer ‘Right to Know’ (Fall 2016), https://object.cato.org/sites/cato.org/files/serials/files/regulation/2016/9/regulation-v39n3-2.pdf.
Steve Armstrong, Food and Drug Law Institute Update, Behind USDA’s “Process Verified Non-GMO” Label: Pathway to a National Solution? (July/August 2016) (subscription required).
- Tom Colicchio, The New York Times, Are You Eating Frankenfish? (Dec 15, 2015), http://nyti.ms/1P4cpO9.
Cary Funk and Brian Kennedy, Pew Research Center, The New Food Fights: U.S. Public Divides Over Food Science (Dec. 1, 2016), http://www.pewinternet.org/2016/12/01/the-new-food-fights/.
Danny Hakim, The New York Times, Doubts About the Promised Bounty of Genetically Modified Crops (Oct. 29, 2016), https://www.nytimes.com/2016/10/30/business/gmo-promise-falls-short.html.
Chelsea Harvey, The Washington Post, People want GMO food labeled— which is pretty much all they know about GMOs (July 21, 2016), https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/energy-environment/wp/2016/07/21/people-want-gmo-food-labeled-which-is-pretty-much-all-they-know-about-gmos.
Alex G. Leone, Harvard Journal on Legislation, Labeling GM Foods: Democracy and Autonomy (Feb. 21, 2016), http://harvardjol.com/2016/02/21/labeling-gm-foods-democracy-and-autonomy/.
- Oscar Lopez, Newsweek, Genetically Modified Rice Could Withstand the Ravages of Climate Change (Feb. 10, 2016), http://www.newsweek.com/2016/02/19/genetically-modified-rice-climate-change-world-hunger-424773.html.
Belinda Martineau, Biotech Salon, Crop Genetic Engineering, Warts and All (Oct. 30, 2012), https://biotechsalon.com/2012/10/30/crop-genetic-engineering-warts-and-all/.
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Distinction Between Genetic Engineering and Conventional Plant Breeding Becoming Less Clear, Says New Report on GE Crops (May 17, 2016), http://www8.nationalacademies.org/onpinews/newsitem.aspx?RecordID=23395.
- Chris Sorensen, Maclean's, In defence of genetically modified food (March 13, 2016), http://www.macleans.ca/society/science/in-praise-of-genetically-modified-foods/.
Stephanie Strom, The New York Times, G.M.O. Labeling Bill Clears First Hurdle in Senate (July 6, 2016), https://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/07/business/gmo-labeling-bill-passes-first-hurdle-in-senate.html.
- Greg Trotter, St. Paul Pioneer Press, GMO labeling debate sows seeds of discord (March 26, 2016), http://www.twincities.com/2016/03/26/gmo-labeling-debate-sows-seeds-of-discord/.
Hydraulic Fracturing & Uncertainty
- Joe Eaton, National Geographic, Oklahoma Grapples With Earthquake Spike – And Evidence of Industry’s Role (July 31, 2014), http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/energy/2014/07/140731-oklahoma-earthquake-spike-wastewater-injection/.
- Ellen Gilmer, EnergyWire, Okla. Drillers Sued for Quake Swarm (Aug. 7, 2014) [link not available – subscription required].
- Neela Banerjee, Los Angeles Times, Oil Companies Fracking into Drinking Water Sources, New Research Shows (Aug. 12, 2014), http://www.latimes.com/nation/la-na-fracking-groundwater-pavillion-20140811-story.html#page=1.
- Randy Lee Loftis, Dallas News, Texas Drinking Water Tainted by Natural Gas Operations, Scientists Find (Sept. 15, 2014), http://www.dallasnews.com/business/energy/20140915-texas-drinking-water-tainted-by-natural-gas-operations-scientists-find.ece.
- Darryl Fears, The Washington Post, With Deep Concerns Over Fracking, a Va. County Says No to More Gas Drilling (Feb. 5, 2012), http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/with-deep-concerns-over-fracking-a-va-county-says-no-to-more-gas-drilling/2012/01/27/gIQAxhUcsQ_story.html.
Cumulative Chemical Exposure, Environmental Justice & Uncertainty
- Tony Barboza & Jessica Garrison, Los Angeles Times, Paramount Residents Not Alone in Pollution Fight (Feb. 15, 2014), http://www.latimes.com/science/la-me-paramount-forge-20140216-story.html#page=1.
- Maria Hegstad, Inside EPA, EPA Advisors, Staff Still Split On Form Of Risk Analysis For Equity Guide (Aug. 4, 2014) [link not available – subscription required].
Law and Uncertainty
- Deborah M. Hussey Freedland, Georgetown International Environmental Law Review, Speaking Science to Law (Dec. 31 2013), https://law.stanford.edu/publications/speaking-science-to-law/.
- Land and Environment Court of New South Wales, Conference of Expert Witnesses Policy (June 12, 2015), http://www.lec.justice.nsw.gov.au/Documents/Policies/Conference%20of%20Expert%20Witnesses%20Policy.pdf.
- Land and Environment Court of New South Wales, Joint Expert Report Policy (June 12, 2015), http://www.lec.justice.nsw.gov.au/Documents/Policies/Joint%20Expert%20Report%20Policy.pdf.
- Baruch Fischhoff and Alex L. Davis, PNAS, Communicating scientific uncertainty (Sept. 16, 2014), http://www.pnas.org/content/111/Supplement_4/13664.full.
- Dale Jamieson, The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Scientific Uncertainty and the Political Process (May 1996), http://www.jstor.org/stable/1047890.
Dan M. Kahan, Journal of Science Communication, What is the "science of science communication"? (March 14, 2015), http://jcom.sissa.it/sites/default/files/documents/JCOM_1403_2015_Y04.pdf.
- Robert O. Keohane, Melissa Lane, and Michael Oppenheimer, Politics, Philosophy & Economics,The ethics of scientific communication under uncertainty (June 27, 2014), http://ppe.sagepub.com/content/early/2014/06/25/1470594X14538570.
Tom Lininger, Boston College Law Review, Green Ethics for Lawyers (Jan. 28, 2016), http://lawdigitalcommons.bc.edu/bclr/vol57/iss1/3/.
Martha Marrapese and Keith A. Matthews, ABA Section of Environment, Energy, and Resources, The Importance of Agricultural Biotechnology in the Response to the Effects of Climate Change (Summer 2014) [link not available - membership required].
- Scott T. McCreary Ph.D., John K. Gamman Ph.D., and Bennett Brooks, Mediation Quarterly, Refining and Testing Joint Fact-Finding for Environmental Dispute Resolution: Ten Years of Success (Jan. 17, 2007), http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/crq.3890180403/abstract.