The three main regions of U.S. rice production overlap with the three most important areas for wintering
habitats recognized by the North American Waterfowl Managment Plan (NAWMP). Cultivated rice,
particularly winter-flooded rice, provides 35 percent of all food energy for dabbling ducks that winter in
these three regions. Limited water supplies, changing cultivation practices, and decreasing farm profitability
are challenging the sustainability of U.S. rice agriculture, which in turn will weaken the ability
to achieve NAWMP population goals.
Estimating the Biological and Economic Contributions That Rice Habitats Make in Support of North American Waterfowl Populations