Early Detection/Rapid Response (EDRR) is a critical tool for identifying and eradicating introductions of new invasive species and pests. The effectiveness of EDRR largely depends on a supportive legal framework that can facilitate quick action. However, a number of states either lack the appropriate legal framework or contain restrictions (such as on the use of pesticides, or the area/manner in which they can be applied, etc.) that hinder the effective use of EDRR. It is important to understand where these gaps in state authority lie in order to address them at the legal and policy level. This report analyzes the legal and policy constraints to state EDRR actions, focusing on terrestrial plant pests and pathogens. These include laws and regulations governing pesticide use, access to private property for surveys and detection, restrictions on tree cutting, compensation provisions, and other relevant issues. The report profiles 14 states and also presents two case studies examining infestations of the Asian Longhorned Beetle and the Asian Gypsy Moths. Funding for this report was generously provided by The Nature Conservancy.