HEADNOTE ❧ The Paris Agreement establishes a framework for international cooperation in limiting the impact of climate change to an average global temperature increase of less than 2 degrees Celsius. Most of the response in meeting national targets will involve regulation at various jurisdictional levels of government and bilateral or regional agreements among signatory nations. But these actions will fall short of the goals of the agreement. In fact, temperatures could increase almost twice as much if governments alone address the risks to society and the biosphere — a truly dangerous situation. The 2016 ELI-Miriam Hamilton Keare Policy Forum took on this difficult policy problem.