Nine state hazardous substance cleanup programs were studied in depth in 1989 to determine what elements of funding, enforcement, program organization and other factors are important to state capabilities. Colorado, Illinois, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, North Carolina, Oregon, Pennsylvania, and Texas were studied in this report. Part I synthesizes the results across states and draws conclusions concerning means of enhancing programs. Part II reports on each of the states studied and shows how program features combine in the context of operating programs. The principal findings of the study concern: goal-setting, funding, responsible party participation in conducting and financing cleanups, incentives mechanisms for responsible party cleanups, site management and staff organization, and program-wide approaches.