Land & Biodiversity
ELI's Invasive Species Program: Strengthening National, Regional, and State Invasive Species Policy
ELI is the foremost authority on state laws and regulations related to invasive species. Our 2002 report, Halting the Invasion, remains the seminal resource on how states can approach invasive species policy. Other important contributions include evaluations of regulatory gaps in specific state and federal laws for forest species, weeds, aquatic invasive species, and animals.
Featured Areas of Expertise and Resources:
- Halting the Invasion at the National Level:
- Tracking Implementation of the Special Need Request Process Under the Plant Protection Act (2011): This article examines how the federal and state governments interact to protect against the spread of non-native plant pests and pathogens inside the United States.
- Status and Trends in State Invasive Species Policy: 2002-2009 (2010): This report reviews developments in state invasive species laws and regulations in 11 states. It identifies trends in state law and needs for the future of invasive species governance and includes an appendix of state-specific provisions.
- The Role of Aquatic Invasive Species in State Listing of Impaired Waters and the TMDL Program: Seven Case Studies (2008): This report examines how seven states representing a range of geography, number of aquatic invasive species, water quality standards, Section 303(d) listings for invasive species, and aquatic invasive species management programs have addressed the effects of invasive species through the federal Clean Water Act.
- Strategies for Effective State Early Detection/Rapid Response Programs for Plant Pests and Pathogens (2007): This study outlines state laws and regulations in 13 states and identifies legal and policy constraints to effective detection and response of invasive forest pests and pathogens. The report has been used in support of the Continental Dialogue on Non-Native Forest Insects and Diseases in its efforts to reform USDA's plant importation rules.
- Invasive Species Control: A Comprehensive Model State Law (2004): This companion publication to Halting the Invasion provides the statutory framework for a comprehensive state program to detect, control, and manage the threat of invasive species across all taxa. The model law has been introduced by legislators in California and used to support reform efforts in the Caribbean.
- Halting the Invasion: State Tools for Invasive Species Management (2002): This seminal study analyzes the existing state laws and regulations that address invasive species, provides policy-makers with information on how to strengthen their own invasive species control programs, and includes an appendix of state-specific invasive species laws and regulations. The recommendations in Halting the Invasion have been incorporated into state invasive species management plans in New Jersey and in other states.
- At the State and Regional Levels:
- Halting the Invasion in the Great Lakes: ELI has undertaken a range of research projects on invasive species in the Great Lakes. New Tools for Responsible Shipping in the Great Lakes: Using Financial Responsibility Policies to Prevent Ballast-Borne Biological Pollution (2009) identifies financial responsibility tools that could be used to protect the Great Lakes economy and environment from biological pollution introduced in ballast water. Report for Great Lakes Protection Fund: Potential Federal Preemption of Laws in the Great Lakes States (2006) examines the extent to which relevant state laws might be affected by federal legislation that would preempt state authority to regulate ballast water. Making a List: Prevention Strategies for Invasive Plants in the Great Lakes States (2004) surveys plant listing programs in Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin to assess the effectiveness of listing as a tool to prevent the proliferation and spreads of invasive plant species.
- Halting the Invasion in the Chesapeake Bay: ELI also has tackled the issue of invasive species policy in the Chesapeake Bay. Halting the Invasion in the Chesapeake Bay: Preventing Aquatic Invasive Species Introduction through Regional Cooperation (2007) analyzes laws and regulations that affect aquatic invasive species prevention efforts, such as in the pet trade, importation of aquarium fish, aquaculture, and other commercial enterprises; and makes recommendations intended to harmonize interstate efforts in the Chesapeake Bay under existing authorities.
- In Florida, ELI has undertaken several studies designed to support efforts to strengthen the state's invasive species programs. Cooperative Prevention of Invasive Wildlife Introduction in Florida (2008) examines the complex issues faced in addressing the issue of wildlife invasions in Florida. The report analyzes state and federal laws and regulations that affect invasive wildlife species prevention efforts, and makes recommendations intended to harmonize state and federal agency efforts in Florida under existing legal authorities. Filling the Gaps: Ten Strategies to Strengthen Invasive Species Management in Florida (2004) outlines the gaps and conflicts in the federal and state legal framework for invasive species management in Florida, with a particular focus on the Everglades.